Minggu, 09 Januari 2011

Hipotesis dan Asumsi dalam Penelitian Pembelajaran Bahasa (Inggris)


Pembahasan tentang hipotesis dan asumsi penelitian ini disajikan dalam bentuk

tanya jawab. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam pembahasan ini berdasarkan

pengalaman penulis yang sering menerima pertanyaan mahasiswa dan sering melihat

praktek yang salah. Pertanyaan tersebut meliputi pengertian hipotesis dan macam

hipotesis, perumusan hipotesis, perbedaan asumsi dan hipotesis, penyajian hipotesis

teoritis dan hipotesis null dalam thesis atau laporan penelitian, hubungan antara

hipotesis teoritis dan hipotesis statistik, dan jumlah hipotesis alternatif.

1. Apa pengertian hipotesis? Ada berapa macam hipotesis?

Dalam penelitian ada tahapan yang harus dilalui, salah satunya adalah tahapan

hipotesis. Dalam penelitian yang menggunakan rancangan kuantitatif yang melibatkan

beberapa variabel untuk diukur hubungannya (baik hubungan kausal atau hubungan

korelasional) tahapan hipotesis harus dilalui untuk memprediksi secara teoritis hasil

penelitian yang akan dilakukan. Hipotesis ini dilakukan untuk menjawab pertanyaan

penelitian sebelum penelitiannya dilaksanakan. Hipotesis ini disebut hipotesis teoritis.

Dalam proses penelitian kuantitatif yang mengukur hubungan antar variabel,

setelah data terkumpul ada juga tahapan hipotesis yang dilakukan sebelum pelaksanaan

analisis data atau langkah awal dalam proses analisis data. Bahkan analisisnya yang

menggunakan formula statistik bertujuan untuk menguji hipotesis. Hipotesis yang diuji

melalui analisis statistik ini disebut dengan hipotesis statistik.

Lain lagi dalam proses penelitian kualitatif, yang model analisisnya

menggunakan beberapa siklus tahapan, tahap setiap siklusnya melibatkan pengumpulan

data, yang dilanjutkan dengan analisis data, dan berakhir dengan kesimpulan.

Kesimpulan yang diperoleh dari satu siklus ini akan divalidasi dengan siklus berikutnya

untuk memperoleh kesimpulan yang lebih terpercaya, dan diteruskan lagi ke siklus

seterusnya (snow balling technique) sampai dihasilkan kesimpulan yang paling valid.

Sebelum menjadi kesimpulan akhir, kesimpulan dari setiap siklus antara tersebut

3

menjadi kesimpulan sementara (temporary). Kesmipulan sementara ini disebut

hipoptesis empiris.

Lain lagi dalam Penelitian Tindakan Kelas yang bertujuan menghasilkan strategi

pembelajaran inofatif untuk meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran di kelas. Sebuah

strategi yang dipilih untuk memecahkan masalah pembelajaran yang akan dikerjakan

melalui PTK sudah dipilih sedemikian rupa sehingga peneliti harus yakin dan mampu

memberikankan argumentasi bahwa strategi tersebut akan bisa menyelesaikan masalah

yang dicoba selesaikan. Keyakinan akan tepatnya pilihan strategi ini oleh beberapa ahli

disebut dengan hipotesis tindakan.

2. Bagaimana merumuskan hipotesis teoritis?

Karena hipotesis adalah jawaban teoritis terhadap pertanyaan penelitian, maka

hipotesis dirumuskan berdasarkan rumusan masalahnya, dengan menggunakan bahasa

yang operasional tanpa menggunakan istilah teknis sebagaimana yang biasanya dipakai

dalam perumusan tujuan. Misalnya dalam penelitian yang bertujuan untuk menguji

pengaruh (ini contoh istilah teknis penelitian) jenis kelamin terhadap prestasi belajar

Bahasa Inggris bagi siswa SMA se Malang Raya, masalahnya dirumuskan dengan

kalimat, Apakah prestasi belajar Bahasa Inggris kelompok siswi (perempuan) SMA se

Malang Raya lebih tinggi dibanding prestasi belajar Bahasa Inggris kelompok siswa

(laki-laki) SMA se Malang Raya? Hipotesis untuk rumusan masalah tersebut adalah

prestasi belajar Bahasa Inggris kelompok siswi (perempuan) SMA se Malang Raya

lebih tinggi dibanding prestasi belajar Bahasa Inggris kelompok siswa (laki-laki) SMA

se Malang Raya.

Dalam penelitian yang bertujuan menguji efektifitas (kegiatan yang dilakukan

dengan cara yang sangat teknis, yaitu menggunakan formula statistik) strategi

pembelajaran Listening melalui Lab bahasa, masalahnya dirumuskan dengan kalimat,

Apakah kelompok siswa kelas IX SMPN 1 Malang tahun 2009 yang belajar Listening

melalui lab bahasa berprestasi lebih tinggi dibanding kelompok siswa yang sama yang

tidak belajar Listening melalui Lab bahasa? Hipotesis untuk rumusan masalah tersebut

adalah kelompok siswa kelas IX SMPN 1 Malang tahun 2009 yang belajar Listening

4

melalui lab bahasa berprestasi lebih tinggi dibanding kelompok siswa yang sama yang

tidak belajar Listening melalui Lab bahasa.

Dalam penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengukur hubungan korelasional (istilah

yang sangat teknis) antara kemampuan membaca dan kemampuan menulis mahasiswa

tingkat pertama jurusan bahasa Inggris Universitas Negeri Malang tahun 2008, rumusan

masalahnya dirumuskan dengan kalimaf, Apakah semakin tinggi kemampuan membaca

mahasiswa tingkat pertama jurusan Bahasa Inggris Universitas Negeri Malang tahun

2008, semakin tinggi pula kemampuan menulis mereka?. Hipotesis untuk masalah ini

dirumuskan dengan kalimat Semakin tinggi kemampuan membaca mahasiswa tingkat

pertama jurusan Bahasa Inggris Universitas Negeri Malang tahun 2008, semakin tinggi

pula kemampuan menulis mereka.

3. Apa beda asumsi dan hipotesis?

Setiap saat orang melakukan suatu kegiatan, pasti dia memiliki keyakinan

terhadap apa yang dia lakukan. Atas dasar keyakinan itulah dia melakukan kegiatan

tersebut. Bila keyakinan tersebut tidak ada, dia tidak mungkin melakukan kegiatan

tersebut. Seorang yang sedang menyeberang jalan (setelah menengok ke kanan dan kiri)

dia yakin bahwa dia akan aman untuk menyeberang jalan. Kalau dia tidak yakin bahwa

dia akan aman untuk menyeberang jalan, dia tidak mungkin menyeberang jalan itu.

Mahasiswa yang belajar di S2 UM yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan

akademiknya (selain untuk memperoleh ijasah S2 untuk kepentingan sertifikasi,

misalnya) punya keyakinan bahwa melalui kegiatan belajar di S2 UM dia akan bisa

berhasil meningkatkan kemampuan akademiknya dan bisa lulus dengan membawa

isajasah S2 UM dua tahun sejak dia memulai semester pertama. Kalau mahasiswa

tersebut tidak yakin bisa meningkatkan kemampuan akademik yang dia perlukan dan

tidak yakin bisa lulus dengan membawa ijasahnya, dia tidak mungkin masuk ke

program S2 UM. Keyakinan itu disebut asumsi. Jadi asumsi adalah keyakinan yang

dimiliki seseorang sebagai syarat orang tersebut memutuskan untuk melakukan suatu

kegiatan. Tanpa asumsi seseorang tidak akan memutuskan untuk melakukan sesuatu

perbuatan.

5

Orang Islam meyakini atas dasar ajaran yang diikutinya, bahwa segala sesuatu

yang ada di alam ini (termasuk dirinya) diciptakan oleh Tuhan lengkap dengan cara

kerjanya masing-masing. Apabila sistem yang ada pada sebuah objek itu berjalannya

terganggu karena sesuatu hal (apabila sistem yang harus berjalan dalam tubuhnya

terganggu), maka objek tersebut tidak bisa berfungsi dengan baik (apabila yang

terganggu adalah sistem kerja tubuhnya, maka tubuhnya akan sakit). Keyakinan itulah

yang dalam penelitian disebut asumsi.

Dalam kegiatan penelitian, peneliti yang bertujuan untuk menemukan aturan

(sistem, pola, atau formula) yang menjadi hukum berfungsinya objek penelitian,

memiliki asumsi bahwa objek penelitian di alam ini memiliki sistem (pola, aturan, atau

formula) kerja tertentu dan sistem kerja itu bisa ditemukan melalui penelitian. Ary,

Jacobs, dan Razafieh (1979:13) menyebutkan beberapa pernyataan bahwa

a fundamental assumption made by scientists is that the events they investigate

are lawful or ordered no event is capricious.

This assumption underlies any statement that declares that under specific

conditions certain events will occur.

Related to this first assumption is the belief that the events in nature are orderly

and regular and that this order and regularity of nature can be discovered

through the scientific method.

Berangkat dari asumsi adanya sistem pada objek penelitian yang bisa ditemukan

melalui penelitian itulah peneliti berusaha menemukan sistem tersebut melalui kegaiatn

penelitian. Tidak mungkin peneliti berusaha menemukan sistem tersebut kalau dia tidak

yakin bahwa sistem itu ada atau dia yakin sistem itu ada tetapi tidak yakin bisa

ditemukan melalui penelitian.

Asumsi tidak untuk diuji tetapi sudah otomatis menjadi dasar tindakan, sementara

hipotesis adalah prediksi terhadap apa yang akan dihasilkan dari penelitian yang

dilakukan.peneliti.

6

4. Haruskah hipotesis teoritis dan hipotesis null disajikan bersama pada chapter 1

dalam tesis atau laporan penelitian?

Dalam chapter 1 pada tesis atau laporan penelitian disampaikan latar belakang

yang menjadi titik tolak mengapa satu penelitian layak untuk dilaksanakan, pertanyaan

yang dirumuskan (research problems) untuk dijawab melalui penelitian yang

dikerjakan, tujuan (research objectives) yang ingin dicapai melalui kegiatan penelitian,

asumsi yang mendasari pertanyaan penelitian, hipotesis teoritis (theoritical hypothesis)

yang memprediksi hasil penelitian yang dikerjakan, kontribusi hasil penelitian terhadap

pengembangan teori (theoretical significance) dan atau terhadap praktek pembelajaran

(practical significance), penjelasan kata-kata kunci (key terms) yang digunakan dalam

proses kegiatan penelitian, dan ada juga yang dilengkapi dengan uraian singkat tentang

kerangka teori (theoretical framework) yang mendasari cara kerja kegiatan penelitian

yang dikerjakan.

Dari uraian di atas nampak tidak ada tempat untuk membahas topik apapun di

chapter 1 tesis atau laporan penelitian selain topik-topik tersebut. Penempatan hipotesis

null pada chapter 1 (sebagaimana banyak ditemukan dalam tesis S2 dan banyak laporan

penelitian) adalah salah tempat karena hipotesis null digunakan dalam proses analisis

data yang menjadi bagian dari metode penelitian yang disajikan pada chapter 3.

5. Apa hubungan antara hipotesis teoritis dan hipotesis statistik?

Hipotesis teoritis yang benar bisa diuji secara statistik. Hipotesis yang bisa diuji

secara statistik ini selalu melibatkan lebih dari satu variabel. Hubungan antar variabel

(kausal atau korelasional) inilah yang akan diuji secara statistik. Tentunya pengujian

hipotesis teoritis ini tidak dilakukan secara langsung, tapi harus mengikuti prosedur

pengujian hipotesis, yang menuntut beberapa langkah. Langkah pertama adalah

melakukan transformasi hipotesis teoritis menjadi hipotesis null (disingkat Ho). Dengan

kata lain apabila hipotesis teoritis tidak bisa ditransformasikan ke dalam Ho, maka

hipotesis teoritis tersebut salah.

Misalnya: Karena semua mahasiswa baru program Studi S2 Pendidikan Bahasa

Inggris (PSPBI) Universitas Negeri Malang (UM) diterima melalui seleksi yang ketat

yang menjamin kompetensi yang memadahi untuk menyelesaikan studi di S2 PSPBI

7

UM, maka bisa diprediksikan bahwa mereka semua akan lulus tepat waktu. Pernyataan

tersebut secara logika benar dan berbunyi seperti hipotesis teoritis, tetapi pernyataan

tersebut bukan hipotesis teoritis, karena tidak berisi lebih dari satu variabel sehingga

tidak bisa ditransformasikan ke dalam hipotesis null dan oleh karena itu tidak bisa diuji

secara statistik.

Contoh Hipotesis teoritis:

(1) Prestasi dalam belajar listening kelompok mahasiswi semester I jurusan

bahasa Inggris UM cenderung lebih tinggi dibanding prestasi kelompok

mahasiswa pada semester I jurusan yang sama.

(2) Kelas siswa SMPN 1 Malang yang belajar listening dalam lab bahasa

cenderung memiliki hasil kemampuan listening yang lebih tinggi dibanding

dengan kelas siswa di SMP yang sama yang tidak belajar dalam lab

bahasa.

(3) Semakin tinggi penguasaan vocabulary siswa-siswa SMA di Malang

cenderung semakin tinggi pula kemampuan reading comprehensionnya.

Hipotesis teoritis tersebut bisa ditransforamsikan ke dalam hipotesis null menjadi:

(1) Prestasi dalam belajar listening kelompok mahasiswi semester I jurusan

bahasa Inggris UM cenderung tidak berbeda dengan prestasi kelompok

mahasiswa pada semester I jurusan yang sama

(2) Kelas siswa SMPN 1 Malang yang belajar listening dalam lab bahasa

cenderung memiliki hasil kemampuan listening yang tidak berbeda

dibanding dengan kelas siswa di SMP yang sama yang tidak belajar dalam

lab bahasa.

(3) Semakin tinggi penguasaan vocabulary siswa-siswa SMA di Malang tidak

diikuti dengan semakin tingginya kemampuan reading comprehensionnya

Langkah ke dua adalah menganalisis data untuk melihat apakah ada bukti cukup

(signifikan) untuk menolak hipotesis null. Hasil analisis bisa menunjukkan tidak ada

bukti signifikan untuk menolak hipotesis null atau ada bukti signifikan untuk

menolak hipotesis null. Penentuan tingkat signifikansi bukti empiris (dari data)

dilakukan atas dasar penghitungan statistik. Apabila hasil analisis menunjukkan tidak

ada bukti signifikan untuk menolak hipotesis null, maka kesimpulan akhir penelitian

telah bisa dirumuskan, yaitu fakta (data) empiris tidak (cukup untuk) menolak

pernyataan hipotesis null. Dengan tidak adanya bukti signifikan untuk menolak

8

hipotesis null, maka hipotesis teoritisnya hanya dinyatakan benar dalam teori, tetapi

tidak didukung oleh data empiris.

Apabila hasil analisis menunjukkan adanya bukti signifikan untuk menolak

hipotesis null, maka pernyataan hipotesis null (seperti pada contoh di atas: Prestasi

kelompok mahasiswi jurusan Bahasa Inggris UM cenderung tidak berbeda dengan

prestasi kelompok mahasiswa pada jurusan yang sama) ditolak oleh kenyataan empiris.

Penolakan hipptesis null oleh bukti data signifikan menghasilkan kesimpulan sementara

yang mengubah hipotesis null tersebut (dalam contoh tersebut hipotesis null berubah

menjadi Prestasi kelompok mahasiswi jurusan Bahasa Inggris UM cenderung berbeda

dengan prestasi kelompok mahasiswa pada jurusan yang sama). Pernyataan berbeda

dalam contoh hipotesis tersebut belum mengindikasikan kelompok mana yang lebih

tinggi. Untuk itu diperlukan langkah ketiga dalam proses analisis ini, yaitu penentuan

hipotesis alternatif dan folow-up tes untuk meentukan kelompok mana yang lebih

tinggi.

6. Ada berapa hipotesis alternatif?

Hipotesis null bisa diikuti oleh satu hipotesis alternatif atau dua (atau lebih)

alternatif hipoptesis tergantung pada implikasi atau tujuan penelitiannya. Penelitian

yang bertujuan menguji efektifitas pembelajaran listening melalui lab bahasa akan

memiliki implikasi terhadap kebijakan sekolah untuk membeli lab bahasa atau tidak

perlu membeli lab bahasa. Karena lab bahasa bukan sesuatu yang murah, maka sebelum

memutuskan pembelian lab bahasa, sekolah perlu mendapat informasi yang meyakinkan

dari hasil penelitian apakah memang penggunaan lab bahasa lebih efektif untuk

pembelajaran listening dibanding dengan pembelajaran listening melalui kelas

konvensional seperti yang telah rutin dikerjakan di sekolah tersebut. Dengan demikian

penelitian tersebut sepenuhnya diarahkan untuk melihat apakah kelompok siswa yang

belajar listening menggunakan lab bahasa memang berhasil jauh (signifikan) lebih

tinggi dibanding dengan kelompok siswa yang belajar Listening dalam kelas

konvensional rutin seperti biasa. Arah lainnya, apakah kelompok siswa yang belajar

Listening melalui kelas konvensional berprestasi lebih tinggi dibanding dengan

kelompok siswa yang belajar Listening menggunakan lab bahasa, tidak menjadi

kepedulian peneliti karena jawaban ini tidak memiliki kepentingan (tidak akan

9

mempengaruhi kebijakan) sekolah. Dalam kontek seperti ini penelitian tersebut hanya

memiliki satu alternatif hipotesis, yang biasanya dirumuskan seperti hipotesis teori.

Sementara penelitian yang bertujuan menguji pengaruh jenis kelamin terhadap

prestasi belajar Bahasa Inggris semua siswa SMP se Malang Raya memiliki arah ganda.

Bila ditemukan cukup (signifikan) bukti untuk menolak hipotesis null (prestasi

kelompok siswi tidak berbeda dengan prestasi kelompok siswa SMP se Malang Raya

dalam belajar bahasa Inggris), maka perlu dilakukan follow-up uji hipotesis berikutnya,

yaitu hipotesis alternatif satu yang perumusannya seperti pada hipotesis teoritis

(prestasi kelompok siswi lebih tinggi dibanding prestasi kelompok siswa SMP se

Malang Raya dalam belajar bahasa Inggris) dan hipotesis alternatif dua yang

perumusannya kebalikan dari rumusan hipotesis teoritis (prestasi kelompok siswa

berprestasi lebih tinggi dibanding dengan prestasi kelompok siswi SMP se Malang

Raya dalam belajar bahasa Inggris). Kedua arah ini sama-sama ingin diketahui oleh

peneliti, yaitu apakah prestasi siswa lebih tinggi atau prestasi siswi lebih tinggi. Dalam

konteks seperti ini, penelitiannya menggunakan dua hipotesis alternatif (dua arah).

Seorang peneliti yang juga kebetulan seorang guru baru yang akan mengajar ingin

mengetahui mana di antara dua strategi yang telah dikuasai lebih efektif yang akan

dipilihnya dalam mengajar. Penelitian yang dia lakukan akan melibatkan dua alternatif

hipotesis. Tetapi seorang guru lama yang telah bertahun-tahun menggunakan satu

strategi pembelajaran, apabila dia mengenali satu strategi pembelajaran baru yang

secara teoritis lebih efektif, dia tidak langsung mengganti strategi lamanya dengan

strategi baru. Dia perlu mendasarkan pilihanya pada hasil penelitian. Apabila dia

melakukan penelitian yang membandingkan efektifitas strategi lama dengan strategi

baru tersebut, maka dia hanya akan menggunakan satu alternatif hipotesis.

KEPUSTAKAAN

Ary, D., Jacobs, L.C., Razavieh, A. 1979. Introduction to Research in Education.

Chicago: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

10

Hypothesis in Language Learning Research

By Mohammad Adnan Latief

Abstract: Hypothesis is very often inevitable in research activities.

Hypothesis is of at least three kinds, each of which should not be

confused. A study trying to measure the relationship between

variables can predict the finding based on theory or logical common

sense. This prediction is called theoretical hypothesis. In testing

hypothesis quantitatively, the theorretical hypothesis should be

transformed into statistical hypothesis, which takes the form of Null

hypothesis and its alternatives. It is the Null hypothesis that is to be

tested to justify its rejection or otherwise its acceptance. In

qualitative study, the result of first data analysis is called temporal

empirical hypothesis that should be validated with more data. This

cycle of rechecking the result with more data is done again and again

until the hypothesis becomes the final conclusion.

Key words: theoretical hypothesis, empirical hypothesis, and

statistical hypothesis.

Drawing a research hypothesis is very often inevitable in a research project

involving either quantitative or qualitative data. The type of hypopthesis is different from

one research activity to another research activity, or from research involving quantitative

data from the one involving qualitative data. In other words, there are more than one

types of hypothesis each of which has its definition and function that should not be

confused by the researcher. Misplacing one hypothesis from another hypothesis shows

that the researcher does not have clear understanding of what hypotheis actually is.

From my experience reading graduate theses and attending graduate students

seminar clases I see a lot of misplaced hypotheses. Very often graduate students confuse

one kind of hypothesis from another kind of hypothesis. They confuse theoretical

hypothesis with statistical hypothesis, hypothesis for quantitative research with one for

qualitative research. This article tries to make clarification for language researchers

including graduate students doing research for their thesis so that they can choose the

right kind of hypothesis in their research report for their thesis.

11

When a researcher predicts the finding of his/her research based on a theory or

based on a logical common sense, he is drawing a theoretical hypothesis. Another

researcher who draws a temporary conclusion, a conclusion that he/she will validate with

more data, is drawing an empirical hypothesis. While a researcher is computing data for

his/her research, he wants to be objective, he does not want to be biased. Therefore,

he/she will have to state a null hypothesis with its alternative(s). This kind of hypotheis

is called statistical hypothesis, different from the other two hypotheses.

THEORETICAL HYPOTHESIS

In a research project applying quantitative approach or which relies the expected

finding on quantitative data (data that have to be quantified in the process of analysis), a

researcher who is trying to measure the relationship between two or more variables must

predict the answer to the problem or the finding of the research based on theory or based

on logical common sense. This prediction must have theoretical as well as logical truth

in it. This theoretical and logical prediction is called hypothesis (Tuckman, 1999:89;

Borg & Gall, 1983:78). More precisely, Ary, Jacobs, and Razavieh (1979:72) defines

the theoretical and logical hypothesis as

a tentative proposition suggested as a solution to a problem or as an

explanation of some phenomena. It presents in simple form a statement of

the researcher s expectation relative to a relationship between variables

within the problem .

For example, in a research aimed at testing the effect of sex toward the achiemenet

in language learning or in math learning, the researcher can predict that theoretically and

logically female students would make better achievement in language learning than male

students of the same level. In the same way he/she can predicat that theoretically and

logically, male students would make better achievemnt in math learning than female

students of the same level.

When a study does not try to measure the relationship between two or more

variables, or when it involves only one variable, a hypothesis cannot be provided. In

other words, not every research problem has to be followed with a research hypothesis.

12

Forcing one s self to provide hypothesis for every research problem would result in the

difficulties during the process of statistical computation of the data, as every hypothesis

should later be tramsformed into a statistical hypothesis for the purpose of testing. So, a

hypothesis which cannot later be transformed into a statistical hypothesis is a wrong

hypothesis (Ary, Jacobs, and Razavieh, 1979: 77). In the same way, a hypothesis which

already takes the form of statistical hypothesis, not for the purpose of testing, is also

wrong because it does not reflect theoretical and logical prediction of the answer to the

research problem.

Tuckman summarizes three criteria to meet in stating a hypothesis correctly. A

good hypothesis statement should

(1) conjecture about the direction of the relationship between two or more

variables, (2) be stated clearly and unambiguously in the form of a

declarative sentence, and (3) be testable; that is, it should allow restatement

in an operational form that can then be evaluated based on data (Tuckman,

1999:73).

Following are examples of good hypothesis statements derived from the

related research problems.

Problem: Do students with higher IQ tend to achieve better in learning a

foreign language than those with lower IQ?

Hypothesis: Students with higher IQ tend to achieve better in learning a

foreign language than those with lower IQ.

Problem: Do students learning a foreign language achieve better from a

directive foreign language teacher than those from a non-

directive foreign language teacher?

Hypothesis: Students learning a foreign language achieve better from a

directive foreign language teacher than those from a non-

directive foreign language teacher.

Problem: Does the repetitious use of prompting in instructional

language learning materials impair the effectiveness of those

materials?

Hypothesis: Students using language learning materials with repetitious

use of prompting do not learn as effectively as those using

language learning materials without repetitious use of

prompting. (Tuckman, 1999: 29, 73)

STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS

13

Unlike theoretical hypothesis aimed at predicting the outcome of the research,

statistical hypothesis is a statement that has to be made by the researcher while

computing the data to allow statistical hypothesis testing (Tuckman, 1999: 88). This

statistical hypothesis is transformed from the theoretical hypothesis and should, therefore,

not be mentioned after the statement of the research problem in Chapter 1 of the research

report or thesis. In fact, it does not have to be reported in any chapter of the research

report or thesis. It is usually found in Statistics books which describe the process of

computation, more specifically in the process of hypothesis testing. Statistical hypothesis

always takes the form of null hypothesis, represented as Ho, followed with its

alternative(s), alternative one hypothesis, represented as H1, and alternative two

hypothesis, represented as H2. It is this Ho that is to be tested in the statistical analysis.

For example, from the theoretical hypothesis mentioned earlier about the effect of

sex toward achievement in language learning, the hypothesis which states that female

students would make better achievement in language learning than male students of the

same level can be transformed into a statistical Ho statement, there is no difference in

achievement between female students and male students in language learning

(represented as Mean Score of Female students - Mean score of male students= 0). From

this Ho, the alternative H1 can be formulated as Mean score of female students is

significantly bigger than that of male students, and its alternative H2 as Mean score of

male students is significantly bigger than that of female students.

Statistical analysis tests whether there is enough statistical evidence to reject Ho.

If enough evidence is found, then the researcher rejects the Ho. In the absence of enough

statistical evidence, the researcher accepts the Ho. In other words, statistical analysis

allows the researcher to test Ho and to determine whether the evidence suggets rejecting

or accepting it. If the statistical analysis results justify rejecting the Ho, then they provide

support for its alternative hypothesis (Tuckman, 1999: 284). If the statistical analysis

results do not justify rejecting Ho, then Ho is accepted, which means that there is no

support for its alternative hypothesis.

14

In the case of testing the effect of sex towards achievement in language learning,

Ho would refer to the belief that the average score of male students is about the same as

that of female students. Even if the average score is different, let s say the mean score of

the female students is higher than that of male students, it is believed that the difference

occurs by mere chance variations. If the measurement is to be repeated, the difference in

the average score might disappear. Testing Ho refers to testing that believe.

If the statistical hypothesis testing results do not show strong evidence to reject that

belief (Ho), then that belief (Ho) is not to be changed and is then taken as the finding.

That belief of equality between the two means (Ho) will change only if the statistical

hypothesis testing results show strong evidence to reject it. Rejecting Ho means that

there is a strong reason to believe that the difference is not mere chance variations, it is a

real difference (Vockell & Asher, 1995:316-319). This means support to the alternative

hypothesis.

EMPIRICAL HYPOTHESIS

A language learning researcher ((as illustrated by Bogdan and Biklen, (1998:64) in

their hypothetical study for descriptive illustration)) is trying to study effective language

teachers. His general topic and focus is developing a theory on effective language

teachers. He starts his research by deciding to choose a teacher who can represent a real

effective language teacher as his subject. After observing several language classrooms

and interviewing several experienced language teachers, language learners, school

headmasters, and some parents whose children are learning language in their classrooms,

he gets recommendation to select one teacher who is believed to have the right authority

to represent or meets the expected criteria of an effective language teacher as his subject

of the study.

He then conducts an in-depth interview in a long, open-ended, tape recorded

discussion with the selected effective language teacher. As a supplement to the

interview, he also visits the teacher s schools and observes her in action. From that initial

interview and observation, he develops a loose descriptive theory of language teacher

15

effectiveness. This theory is his first conclusion of the study which is still temporary as

it is based on initial interview and observation. This is his first temporary empirical

hypothesis.

After he has sketched out his temporary theory of effective language teacher, he

picks a second effective language teacher to interview. In picking the following

effectieve language teachers to interview, he used snowball sampling technique; that is,

he asked the first person he interviewed to recommend others. He interviewed the second

subject in a similar open-ended manner, witholding the theory (first Hypothesis) he

developed from his first initial interview. After the second interview, he rewrites and

modifies the theory (the first hypopthesis) to fit the new case. He continues choosing and

interviewing new people, modifying the theory (previous hypothesis) to fit the new case.

He proceeds in this manner, picking new subjects, enlarging the theory (the temporary

hypothesis) until no longer comes across any case that does not fit the theory (the

hypothesis). At the end, he takes the final hypothesis as the conclusion or the finding of

his study about language teacher effectiveness (Bogdan & Biklen, 1999:64).

The narration on the process of qualitative research on language teacher

effectiveness above shows us another type of hypothesis (Tuckman, 1999: 417) different

from the earlier mentioned theoretical as well as statistical hypothesis. This type of

hypotheis is not based on theory, nor is it for the purpose of statistical data computation,

it is a temporary hypothesis based on data analysis. This hypothesis after going through

several modification to fit several cases becomes the final conclusion of the study.

Following is another illustration to clarify empirical hypothesis. A study on the

order of acquisition on English reflexive pronouns among Spanish children learning

English as a Second Language in the United States reveals that the children first acquire

the form: myself, yourself, herself, ourself*, hisself*, and theirself*. The first three

reflexive pronouns myself, yourself, and herself are correctly learned in this first

temporary conclusion but the second three reflexive pronouns hisself*, ourself*, and

theirself* are overgeneralized from the possessive pronouns my, your, her, his, our and

their that they have learned before plus the word self. Then in the next stage in the

16

sequence of acquisition of the reflexive pronouns, the children learn : myself, yourself,

herself, himself, ourself*, and themself*. This second stage of the sequence in the

acquisition of reflexive pronouns is the improvement of the first stage conclusion,

correcting the form hisself* and theirself* into himself and themself*. This second stage

conclusion is still temporary, it is not final yet. Only in the next stage, then the Spanish

children acquire the final conclusion myself, yourself, herself, ourselves, himself, and

themselves, correcting the wrong forms ourself* and themself* to the correct forms

ourselves and themselves.

The process of acquiring the rules of reflexive pronouns by the Spanish children

learning English as the Second Language in the United States that takes stages shows that

learning the rules of reflexive pronouns for these children does not take once for all. It

starts from the first exposure to the actual use of the expressions involving those reflexive

pronouns, then is followed spontaneously with subconscious analysis by the children

resulting in the first stage conclusion: myself, yourself, herself, ourself*, hisself*, and

theirself*. The first stage conclusion is verified and revised through the second cycle

which again starts with further exposure and ends in subconscious analysis resulting in

the second stage conclusion: myself, yourself, herself, himself, ourself*, and themself*.

The second stage conclusion is again verified and revised through the third cycle which

again starts with further exposure and ends in subconscious analysis resulting in the last

stage conclusion: myself, yourself, herself, himself, ourselves, and themselves.

This process of acquisition of the rules of reflexive pronouns by the Spanish

children learning English as a Second Language in the United States is just like the

process of data analysis in qualitative research that involves a temporary empirical

hypothesis, which is revised into the next temporary empirical hypothesis, until the

hypopthesis becomes the conclusion (Dulay, Burt, & Krashen, 1982:215)

REVIEW ON HYPOTHESIS STATEMENTS IN THESIS

17

Following is discussion on how hypotheses are stated in theses on language

learning. Some theses state good and clear hypotheses, some state wrong hypothesis, and

still others state hypotheses which are not elaborated enough.

Good and Clear Hypotheses

Following are examples of hypothesis statements that meet the criteria of good

hypothesis. They state the expected relationship between variables involved, are testable,

consistent with the existing body of knowledge, and stated simply and concisely (Ary,

Jacobs, and Razavieh, 1979:77-79)

The higher scores of the students knowledge on topics are, the higher

scores of their ability in writing a coherent expository discourse

(Dwimaretno, 1996:5)

There is a significant positive correlation between frequency of watching TV

serials and speaking ability (Ambarkati, 1991:15)

The high scores of students experience in English songs tend to go together

with high scores of students English pronunciation (Sulistyaningtyas,

1996:3)

As class level increases,

the average score for descriptive papers should also increase,

the average coherence score for descriptive papers should also increase,

the average complexity of sentences per paper should also increase,

the average number of sentences per paper should also increase,

the average frequency of grammatical errors per paper should decrease,

the average frequency of mechanical errors per paper should decrease.

(Latief, 1990:6-7).

The average score for argumentative papers of the seniors should be higher

than that of the juniors (Latief, 1990:7).

The average coherence score for argumentative papers of the seniors

should be higher than that of the juniors (Latief, 1990:7).

Students learning vocabulary through distributed practice--practice in

learning vocabulary through several short sessions separated by one or two

days-- achieve better than those learning vocabulary through massed

practice --practice in learning vocabulary through a few long sessions

separated by one week or two (Djiwandono, 2001: 195).

18

Achievement in language learning by K1 students is significantly better than

that by K2 students (Gosong, 1993:20).

Students who are taught with summarizing technique perform better in

literal reading comprehension skill than those taught with non-summarizing

technique (Junaidi, 1996:10).

The mean of vocabulary gain score of the group under individualized

vocabulary instruction is higher than that of the group under teacher-

centered instruction (Masduki, 1999:11).

The total group of learners treated with individualized technique of

instruction have better written performance of the English verb have and

tense auxiliary have than the other total group treated with traditional full-

class teaching (Harsono, 1993:16).

Misplaced Hypothesis

Following are examples of hypothesis statements which are misplaced as they are

null hypothesis instead of theoretical hypothesis which function should be to predict the

answer to the problem of the study based on theory or logical common sense.

There is no difference in reliability between Cloze Test and Multiple Choice

Test which are based on different texts with the same level of readibility in

measuring reading Comprehension ability (Atmoko, 1991:5)

There is no difference between the mean of vocabulary gain score of the

group under individualized vocabulary instruction and the mean of

vocabulary gain score of the group under teacher-centered instruction

(Masduki, 1999:10).

There is no difference in discrimination index between Cloze Test and

Multiple Choice Test which are based on different texts with the same level

of readibility in measuring reading Comprehension ability (Atmoko,

1991:5)

There is no difference in level of difficulty between Cloze Test and Multiple

Choice Test which are based on different texts with the same level of

readibility in measuring reading Comprehension ability (Atmoko, 1991:5)

Not Clearly Stated Hypothesis

19

Some hypothesis statements need elaborations to show the detailed plan of the

research strategy in analysis. Following are examples of the hypothesis statements which

need more elaborations.

There is a significant relationship between the use of syntactic clues and the

use of semantic clues (Kusumarasdyati, 1996:7).

The mean of structure test resulted by English for Beginners is significantly

better than the mean resulted by the Bahasa Inggris 2a untuk SMP

published by Balai Pustaka (Waskito, 1994;10)

The mean of interview test resulted by English for Beginners is

significantly better than the mean resulted by Bahasa Inggris 2a untuk

SMP published by Balai Pustaka (Waskito, 1994;10)

Kusumarasdyati s hypothesis statement which refers to correlational data analysis

technique could be made more operational into:

The more the students are able to identify the syntactic clues the better they

are in identifying the semantic clues.

Waskito s hypothesis statements which refer to comparative data analysis technique

could be made more operational into:

The mean of the Structure test scores for the students who are taught using

English for Beginners is significanly higher than that for the students who

are taught using Bahasa Inggris 2a untuk SMP Published by Balai

pustaka.

The mean of the interview test scores for the students who are taught using

English for Beginners is significanly higher than that for the students who

are taught using Bahasa Inggris 2a untuk SMP Published by Balai

pustaka.

Ambiguosly Stated Hypothesis

Following are examples of hypothesis statements which need more elaboration to

avoid ambiguity in the design of research to be applied.

The students scores on Reading Comprehension test elicited with MCT format are

highly correlated with their scores on Reading Comprehension test elicited with

SAT format (Mahmud, 1996:4)

20

There is a significant difference in students writing achievement of all course

levels as shown by their average scores on the expository writing test (Mukminatin,

1997:13)

There is a significant difference in students writing achievement of all course

levels as shown by their average scores on the narrative writing test (Mukminatin,

1997:13)

There is a significant difference between the group with Bloom s taxonomy of

cognitive levels of questions which put more stress on CAA types of questions and

the group with KCA (traditional) types of questions on students reading ability

(Surjosoeseno, 1991:8)

There would be a significant relationship between students paragraph

knowledge and their ability to write an expository paragraph (Rohimah,

1992:6)

For the students with good English achievement, the frequency of general

and local strategies used in reading an indonesian text is different from

that used in reading an English text (Suharmanto, 2000:16).

For the students with poor English achievement, the frequency of general

and local strategies used in reading an indonesian text is different from

that used in reading an English text (Suharmanto, 2000:16).

For the students with good English achievement and poor English

achievement the frequency of general and local strategies used in reading

an indonesian text is different from that used in reading an English text

(Suharmanto, 2000:16).

The use of Indonesian as daily communication medium in students family

life is related to the achievement of those students in learning Indonesian at

school (Gosong, 1993:20).

There is a difference in the students writing ability

between those who use clustering strategy and those who do not use

mapping strategy, between those who use listing strategy and those who

do not use mapping strategy, between those using outlining strategy and

those using listing strategy, between those using listing strategy and

those using outliningng strategy, between those using outlininging

strategy and those using clustering strategy (Telaumbanua, 1992:16)

The term highly correlated by Mahmud or significant relationship by Rohimah and

by Kusumarasdyati in the above examples may lead to two possible interpretations;

21

negatively corelated or positively correlated. A good hypothesis states clearly whether the

correlation is going to be negative or positive, as follows.

The higher the students scores on Reading Comprehension elicited with

MCT format are, the higher their scores on Redaing Comprehension elicited

with SAT format are. (Positive correlation),

or

The higher the students scores on Reading Comprehension elicited with

MCT format are, the lower their scores on Redaing Comprehension elicited

with SAT format are. (Negative correlation).

The higher the students paragraph knowledge is, the higher their ability in

writing an expository paragrapgh (positive correlation)

or

The higher the students paragraph knowledge is, the lower their ability in

writing an expository paragrapgh (negative correlation).

The statement there is a significant difference by Mukminatin could be made

more specific like the higher the course level is, the better the achievement is. Or the

seniors have better writing achiements than the juniors as shown by their average

scores on expositiry writing test. Suharmanto s statement is different from that of ,

Surjosoeseno s and Telaumbanua s statement There is a difference does not predict

theoretically which one is going to be better. Suharmanto states the hypothesis for good

achievers, for low achievers, and for both the high and low achievers. The last

hypothesis for the high and low achievers does not give clear reference who they are.

Gosong s statement ..is related to.. again gives another example of hypothesis statement

which does not show the direction of the relationship between the variables involved.

Wrong Hypothesis

Following are examples of hypothesis statements which are wrong as they are not

easily transformable to statistical hypothesis.

Learning English at the elementary school age supports the ability of the

students in learning the language at SMP (Ivonne, 1995:4)

22

The word support is not an operational statement for a hypothesis which tries to test

correlational relationship between the variables involved. In fact, the word support is

closer to the interpretation of causal relationship to correlational relationship between

variables. A suggested better statement of hypothesis sould read like this:

The longer and more intensive English course the elemantary school age

students experience, the better they will succeed in learning English at

SLTP.

CLOSING

Hypothesis is of several types, each of which has to be stated according to its own

function and placed accordingly. Several theses have shown ambiguous hypothesis

statements, some have shown wrong hypothesis statements, some do not state hypothesis

clearly, and still some others even misplace their hypothesis. Good, clear, and correct

hypothesis statements are helpful to the researchers themselves as well as to the readers

in guiding where the research is up to.

REFERENCES

Ambarkati, sul. 1991 The Correlation between the Frequency of Watching TV Serials

and Speaking Ability of S1 Students of English Department at IKIP MALANG.

Unpublished undergraduate Thesis, FPBS, IKIP MALANG.

Atmoko, Rudi., M. 1991 The Effectiveness of Cloze Test and Multiple Choice Test in

Measuring Reading Comprehension Ability Based on Difficult Texts. Unpublished

undergraduate Thesis, FPBS, IKIP MALANG.

Ary, Donald., Jacobs, Lucy, C., Razavieh, Asghar. 1979 Introduction to Research in

Education, Second edition. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Bogdan, Robert, C., Biklen, Sari, K. 1998 Qualitative Research for Education, An

Introduction to Theory and Methods, Third edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Borg, Walter, R., Gall, Meredith, D. 1983 Educational Research. An Introduction,

Fourth Edition. White Plains: Longman Inc.

23

Djiwandono, Patrisius, I. 2001. Pengaruh Post-Lesson Quiz terhadap Penguasaan Kata

oleh Pembelajar Bahasa Inggris. Suatu Studi pada Pembelajar di Tingkat

Menengah Lanjut. Jurnal Penelitian Kependidikan, Lembaga Penelitian

Universitas Negeri Malang, Tahun 11 Nomor 2 desember 2001.

Dulay, Heidi., Burt, Marina., Krashen, Stephen. 1982. Language Two. Oxford: Oxford

University Press.

Dwimaretno, Soeraswati. 1996. The Correlation between the Students Knowledge on

Topics and their Ability in Writing a Coherent Expository Discourse. Unpublished

undergraduate Thesis, FPBS, IKIP MALANG.

Gosong, I Made, 1993. Perbandingan Prestasi Belajar Bahasa Indonesia antara Siswa

yang Menggunakan Bahasa Indonesia dan Siswa yang Menggunakan Bahasa Bali

dalam Keluarga, unpublished thesis, Graduate School, IKIP MALANG.

Harsono, Yohanes, M. 1993. The Effect of Restricted Individualized Technique of

Instruction on the Achievement of learners Written Performance of the English

Verb HAVE and Tense Auxiliary HAVE (The case at Atma Jaya university

Jakarta), unpublished thesis, Graduate School, IKIP MALANG.

Ivonne, 1995. The Effect of Learning English in the Elementary School Age on the

Students Achievement in English as a School Subject at COR JESU Malang.

Unpublished undergraduate Thesis, FPBS, IKIP MALANG.

Junaidi, 1996. The Effectiveness of Summarizing as a Technique of Teaching English

Reading Comprehension. unpublished thesis, Graduate School, IKIP MALANG.

Kusumarasdyati, 1996 The Use of Context Clues by the Students of English IKIP

MALANG in Reading Comprehension, unpublished thesis, Graduate School, IKIP

MALANG.

Latief, Mohammad, A. 1990. Assessment of English Writing Skills for Students of

English as a Foreign Language at the Institute of Teacher Training and

Education IKIP MALANG, unpublished dissertation, the University of Iowa,

Iowa City.

Mahmud, 1996. Measuring Students Performance in Reading Comprehension by

Using Multiple Choice Test Format and Short Answer Test Format. Unpublished

undergraduate Thesis, FPBS, IKIP MALANG.

Masduki, 1999. The Effectiveness of Individualized Instruction on the Students

Vocabulary Gain at the English Department Muhammadyah University of

Malang, unpublished thesis, Graduate School, IKIP MALANG.

24

Mukminatin, Nur, 1997. The Differences of Students Writing Achievements across

Different Course Levels, unpublished dissertation, Graduate School, IKIP

MALANG.

Rohimah, Umi. 1992. The Relationship between Students Pragraph Knowledge and

their Ability to write Paragraph. Unpublished undergraduate Thesis, FPBS, IKIP

MALANG.

Suharmanto, 2000. Reading Strategies in Indonesian and in English: A Comparative

Study, unpublished thesis, Graduate School, IKIP MALANG.

Sulistyaningtyas, Anis. 1996. The Correlation between Students Experience in English

Songs and their English Pronunciation. Unpublished ndergraduate Thesis, FPBS,

IKIP MALANG.

Surjosoeseno, Tjahjaning, T. 1991. The Effect of Different Types of Questions on

Reading Ability of Students at Widya Mandala Catholic University Surabaya.

unpublished thesis, Graduate School, IKIP MALANG.

Telaumbanua, Sadelie, 1992. Pengaruh Strategi Mapping terhadap Kemampuan

Menulis. unpublished thesis, Graduate School, IKIP MALANG.

Tuckman, Bruce, W. 1999 Conducting Educational Research, fifth Edition. Belmont:

Wadsworth Group.

Vockell, Edward, L., Asher, J.W. 1995. Educational Research, Second edition.

Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Waskito, S. Budi, 1994. The Effectiveness of Bahasa Inggris 2a untuk SMP Compared

with the English for Beginners at SMP Negeri I Kartasura, unpublished thesis,

Graduate School, IKIP MALANG.

Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar